Linux exists in many flavors, or distributions. Each of them is descended from the ancestral Linux kernel, released in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Over the years, Linux has evolved in spectacular fashion. Some lineages have spawned multiple progeny; other have died out — truly survival of the fittest! ☺
Of course, wikipedia has a page that describes and classifies all those "distros", as they are called, with graphics depicting various parts of the Linux phylogeny. Debian is an "ancient" distribution with a large family of descendants (Ubuntu and Raspbian among them). Debian is stable and versatile, running smoothly on powerful servers and old PCs, alike.
This page was served to you by a Linode VPS running the Debian OS and the Apache web server!